Chōshi

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Chōshi
銚子市
Chōshi Fishing Port Inubōsaki Lighthouse Yamasa Soy Sauce Chōshi Port Tower Inuboh Station Byōbugaura Chōshi Public Hall
Chōshi Fishing Port Inubōsaki Lighthouse
Yamasa Soy Sauce Chōshi Port Tower
Inuboh Station
Byōbugaura Chōshi Public Hall
Flag of Chōshi
Official seal of Chōshi
Location of Chōshi in Chiba Prefecture
Location of Chōshi in Chiba Prefecture
Chōshi is located in Japan
Chōshi
Chōshi
 
Coordinates: 35°44′4.7″N 140°49′36.4″E / 35.734639°N 140.826778°E / 35.734639; 140.826778Coordinates: 35°44′4.7″N 140°49′36.4″E / 35.734639°N 140.826778°E / 35.734639; 140.826778
CountryJapan
RegionKanto
PrefectureChiba
First official recorded728 AD[citation needed]
City establishedFebruary 11, 1933
Government
 • MayorShinichi Koshikawa (since 17 May 2013)
Area
 • Total84.19 km2 (32.51 sq mi)
Population
 (December 1, 2020)
 • Total59,174
 • Density700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
- TreeSazanka
- FlowerŌmatsuyoigusa (Oenothera erythrosepala)
- FishSardine
Phone number0479-24-8181
Address1-1 Wakamiyachō, Chōshi-shi, Chiba-ken 288-8601
WebsiteOfficial website
Chōshi City Hall
Estuary of Tone River

Chōshi (銚子市, Chōshi-shi) is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 December 2020, the city had an estimated population of 59,174 in 27,160 households and a population density of 700 persons per km².[1] The total area of the city is 84.19 km2 (32.5 sq mi).

Geography[edit]

Chōshi is located in the northeastern part of Chiba prefecture, about 65 kilometers from the prefectural capital at Chiba and 90 to 100 kilometers from central Tokyo. Cape Inubō, within the city, is the easternmost point in the Kantō region. Chōshi is noted for its dramatic sea coast on the Pacific Ocean.[2] The Tone River runs through the northern part of the city. Takagami Atagoyama (elevation 73.6 meters) is the highest peak.

Neighboring municipalities[edit]

Chiba Prefecture

Ibaraki Prefecture

Climate[edit]

Chōshi has a Humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) characterized by warm summers and cool winters with light to no snowfall. The average annual temperature in Chōshi is 15.1 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1605 mm with September as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 25.4 °C, and lowest in January, at around 5.6 °C.[3]

Climate data for Chōshi, Chiba
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9.9
(49.8)
9.8
(49.6)
11.8
(53.2)
16.1
(61.0)
19.8
(67.6)
22.2
(72.0)
25.4
(77.7)
27.9
(82.2)
25.2
(77.4)
20.8
(69.4)
16.8
(62.2)
12.4
(54.3)
18.2
(64.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
6.1
(43.0)
8.5
(47.3)
13.0
(55.4)
16.8
(62.2)
19.4
(66.9)
22.6
(72.7)
24.9
(76.8)
22.7
(72.9)
18.2
(64.8)
13.6
(56.5)
8.6
(47.5)
15.0
(59.0)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
2.5
(36.5)
5.1
(41.2)
10.0
(50.0)
14.1
(57.4)
17.1
(62.8)
20.5
(68.9)
22.8
(73.0)
20.7
(69.3)
15.5
(59.9)
10.1
(50.2)
4.6
(40.3)
12.1
(53.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 78.7
(3.10)
96.9
(3.81)
128.5
(5.06)
128.4
(5.06)
141.0
(5.55)
173.5
(6.83)
100.9
(3.97)
107.7
(4.24)
186.0
(7.32)
216.8
(8.54)
122.7
(4.83)
76.5
(3.01)
1,557.6
(61.32)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 0
(0)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
Average relative humidity (%) 60 62 66 75 80 87 89 86 82 74 69 64 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 166.6 144.0 163.0 165.9 188.1 137.5 163.0 215.3 141.8 133.8 132.1 159.9 1,911
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [4]

Demographics[edit]

Per Japanese census data,[5] the population of Chōshi has been gradually decreasing over the past 50 years.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1920 55,459—    
1930 66,411+19.7%
1940 74,571+12.3%
1950 90,398+21.2%
1960 91,470+1.2%
1970 90,415−1.2%
1980 89,416−1.1%
1990 85,138−4.8%
2000 78,698−7.6%
2010 70,225−10.8%

History[edit]

An 18th century block print showing bonito fishing in Choshi Bay

Chōshi has been noted as a fishing port since ancient times. The commercial fishing and soy sauce industries were developed in Chōshi by the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo period (1603 – 1868). Their development continued in the early industrialization of Japan in the Meiji period (1868 – 1912). The town of Chōshi was established wth the creation of the modern municipalities system on April 1, 1889. Noted soy sauce producer Yamasa was incorporated in 1928, and Higeta in 1932. Chōshi was elevated to city status on February 11, 1933.[6]

Chōshi was a center of industrial unrest in the early 20th century; there were numerous strikes and labor disputes at the soy sauce factories, and residents attacked the government offices in 1930 over heavy taxation and unaccounted expenditures by municipal authorities.[6]

Attack on Chōshi during WWII[edit]

Chōshi was an important military target during World War II due to its fishing industry and canneries. Before and during the war, Chōshi was Tokyo's main food supplier. The first air raid on Chōshi by USAAF B-29 Superfortress bombers took place on March 10, 1945 causing minor damage. This was followed by the Chōshi Air Raid of July 19, 1945, during which time over 150 B-29s rained bombs on the city, destroying 33.8% of the urban area, killing 1,181 civilians and destroying 5,142 homes.[6][7] The city was bombed again on August 1, 1945. Emperor Hirohito made an official visit to the ruined city on June 6, 1946, after the surrender of Japan.

Government[edit]

Chōshi has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city council of 18 members. Chōshi contributes two members to the Chiba Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is part of Chiba 10th district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Economy[edit]

Chōshi is known as a center of soy sauce production. Production methods were introduced to Chōshi in 1616 from Settsu Province, and later from Kii Province, both near the Seto Inland Sea.[2] Soy sauce manufacturers Higeta and Yamasa are based in Chōshi.[8] The Port of Kashima in nearby Kashima City, Ibaraki Prefecture, is utilized to import soybeans for use in soy sauce production. The remains of soybeans not used in soy sauce production in Chōshi are returned to Kashima for production into feed for livestock.

The city is home to the Chōshi Fishing Port. Its catches of sardines, bonito, and tuna are the largest in Chiba Prefecture.[9] Wind power is actively being developed off the rugged coast of Chōshi[10] for use in the city and the greater Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Amber is also found in the area.

Education[edit]

  • Chiba Institute of Science
  • Chōshi has 12 public elementary schools, five public middle schools and one public high school operated by the city government, and two public high schools operated by the Chiba Prefectural Board of Education. The prefecture also operates one special education school for the handicapped.

Transportation[edit]

Railway[edit]

Chōshi Station
Tokawa Station

JR logo (east).svg JR EastSōbu Main Line

JR logo (east).svg JR EastNarita Line

CDK Logomark.svg Chōshi Electric Railway Company - Choshi Electric Railway Line

Highways[edit]

Local attractions[edit]

Chōshi is home to Inubōsaki Lighthouse, completed in 1874 by Scotsman Richard Henry Brunton, as well as numerous historic temples, including Enpuku-ji and Mangan-ji.

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Chōshi has two sister cities:

Notable people from Chōshi[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chōshi city official statistics" (in Japanese). Japan.
  2. ^ a b "銚子市" [Choshi]. Nihon Rekishi Chimei Taikei (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 173191044. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  3. ^ Chōshi climate data
  4. ^ "Choshi Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
  5. ^ Chōshi population statistics
  6. ^ a b c "銚子市" [Chōshi]. Nihon Daihyakka Zensho (Nipponika) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 153301537. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-06-26.
  7. ^ Twentieth Air Force (1945). Tactical Mission Report: Mission no. 277-281, Flown 19 Jul 1945. APO 234 [i.e., Guam]: Twentieth Air Force.CS1 maint: location (link)
  8. ^ Choshi Guide (in Japanese)
  9. ^ "Chōshi". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Netto Adobansusha. 2011. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2011-11-19.
  10. ^ "TEPCO and Orsted form JV to bid in Japan's first offshore wind auction | Recharge". Recharge | Latest renewable energy news.
  11. ^ "International Exchange". List of Affiliation Partners within Prefectures. Council of Local Authorities for International Relations (CLAIR). Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2015.

External links[edit]