|Bezoar ibex, Capra aegagrus aegagrus|
The wild goat or common ibex (Capra aegagrus) is a wild goat species, inhabiting forests, shrublands and rocky areas ranging from Turkey and the Caucasus in the west to Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east. It has been listed as near threatened on the IUCN Red List and is threatened by destruction and degradation of habitat.
Capra aegagrus was the scientific name proposed by Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben in 1777 for the wild goat populations of the Caucasus and Taurus Mountains. Capra blythi proposed by Allan Octavian Hume in 1874 were wild goat horns from Sindh.
The following wild goat subspecies are considered valid taxa:
Distribution and habitat
In Armenia, wild goats were recorded in the Zangezur Mountains, in Khosrov State Reserve, and in highlands of the Syunik Province during field surveys from 2006 to 2007. In Azerbaijan, wild goats occur in Ordubad National Park, Daralayaz and Murovdag mountain areas in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. In Iran's Haftad Gholleh Protected Area, wild goat herds live foremost in west-facing areas with rocky substrates, water sources and steep slopes that are far from roads. In Turkmenistan, wild goat populations inhabit the mountain ranges of Uly Balkan and Kopet Dag. In Pakistan, wild goat herds occur in Kirthar National Park.
Behaviour and ecology
In Kirthar National Park, 283 wild goat groups were observed for 10 months in 1986. The group sizes ranged from two to 131 individuals but varied seasonally, with a mean ratio of two females per male.
In Dagestan, male wild goats start courting females in mid December. The rutting season lasts until the third week of January. Females give birth to between one and three kids in late June to mid July.
Older males drive younger males from the maternal herds. The gestation period averages 170 days. Kids are mobile almost immediately after birth. Kids are weaned after 6 months. Female goats reach sexual maturity at 1½–2½ years, males at 3½–4 years. The lifespan of a goat can be from 12 to 22 years.
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- Mannen, H.; Nagata, Y.; Tsuji, S. (2001). "Mitochondrial DNA reveal that domestic goat (Capra hircus) are genetically affected by two subspecies of bezoar (Capra aegagurus)". Biochemical Genetics. 39 (5−6): 145−154. doi:10.1023/A:1010266207735. PMID 11530852. S2CID 24146711.
- Erxleben, J. C. P. (1777). "Capra aegagrus". Systema regni animalis per classes, ordines, genera, species, varietates cvm synonymia et historia animalivm. Classis I. Mammalia. Lipsiae: Weygandt. pp. 520–521.
- Hume, A. C. (1874). "Note on two apparently undescribed species of Goat from Northern India and a new species of Dove from the Nicobar Islands". Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (December): 240–241.
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- Akhmedov, E. G.; Yarovenko, Y. A.; Nasrullaev, N. I.; Babaev, E. A.; Akhmedov, S. G. (2009). "Conservation of the Bezoar Goat in the Eastern Caucasus". In Zazanashvili, N.; Mallon, D. (eds.). Status and Protection of Globally Threatened Species in the Caucasus (PDF). Tbilisi: CEPF, WWF. pp. 26−31.
- Weinberg, P. (2014). "On the status and biology of the wild goat in Daghestan (Russia)". Journal of Mountain Ecology. 6 (6): 31−40.
- Khorozyan, I. G.; Weinberg, P. I.; Malkhasyan, A. G. (2009). "Conservation Strategy for Armenian Mouflon (Ovis [orientalis] gmelini Blyth) and Bezoar Goat (Capra aegagrus Erxleben) in Armenia". In Zazanashvili, N.; Mallon, D. (eds.). Status and Protection of Globally Threatened Species in the Caucasus (PDF). Tbilisi: CEPF, WWF. pp. 37−45.
- Talibov, T. H.; Weinberg, P. I.; Mammadov, I. B.; Mammadov, E. N.; Talibov, S. T. (2009). "Conservation Strategy of the Asiatic Mouflon (Ovis [orientalis] gmelini Blyth) and the Bezoar Goat (Capra aegagrus Erxleben) in Azerbaijan". In Zazanashvili, N.; Mallon, D. (eds.). Status and Protection of Globally Threatened Species in the Caucasus (PDF). Tbilisi: CEPF, WWF. pp. 46−52.
- Esfandabad, B.S.; Karami, M.; Hemami, M.R.; Riazi, B. & Sadough, M.B. (2010). "Habitat associations of wild goat in central Iran: implications for conservation" (PDF). European Journal of Wildlife Research. 56 (6): 883–894. doi:10.1007/s10344-010-0386-9. S2CID 23188666.
- Korshunov, V. M. (1994). "Ecology of the Bearded Goat (Capra aegagrus Erxleben 1777) in Turkmenistan". Biogeography and ecology of Turkmenistan. Monographiae Biologicae. 72. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 231−246.
- Edge, W. D. & Olson-Edge, S. L. (1990). "Population Characteristics and Group Composition of Capra aegagrus in Kirthar National Park, Pakistan". Journal of Mammalogy. 71 (2): 156–160. doi:10.2307/1382162. JSTOR 1382162.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Capra aegagrus.|
- "Capra aegagrus: Wild goat videos, photos and facts". Arkive. Archived from the original on 2017-06-12. Retrieved 2017-06-18.
- "Crete Wild Goat Capra aegagrus cretica". World Association of Zoos and Aquariums.